Environmental Footprint of the Improved Hard Process
- The production of 5–7 tonnes of a calcium silicate aggregate (J-Rox) accompanies the production of IHP phosphoric acid. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of J-Rox indicate almost no leaching of hazardous substances – far below regulatory limits. Radiological testing (radon emanations) of J-Rox indicate radiation levels of about 3% of natural background and about 10% of federal dosage limits – radiation levels are far below regulatory limits (tests conducted by SENES Consultants and SRC Analytical).
- The process is designed for zero discharge of process wastewaters (process waters can be reused within the plant).
- Carbon dioxide emissions:
|Source||Million Tonnes CO2||Percent of Global|
|Global CO2 Emissions||34,500||100%|
|United States CO2 Emissions||5,383||15.6%|
|Cement Industry CO2 Emissions||1,725||5.0%|
|IHP CO2 Emissions|
|– Industry Conversion (40 Million Tonnes P2O5)||98.18||0.285%|
|– Commercialization Example (4 Million Tonnes P2O5)||9.82||0.028%|
|– Single 200,000 Tonne IHP Plant (0.2 Million Tonnes P2O5)||0.49||0.001%|